Musical notes or sheet music is nothing but a different symbolic language that is used to write down music or musical compositions and this style is accepted universally. A genuine advantage that musicians experience is that the cultural and language barriers did not become a hurdle when it came to depicting music.
The first thing you need is a good dictionary of musical notes. You are bound to come across countless symbols and their variations that would be beyond your understanding at first. Keeping a dictionary handy is definitely advantageous as musical notations are a language in itself with a vocabulary of their own.
The dictionary will help you understand sheet music and the various musical notations as well. Other books that you might refer and which may help you get started are the ones with nursery rhymes and one with scales and chords for simple tunes and songs.
The bar lines are divided according to the rhythm of the song. The rhythm or timing is depicted in numbers at the start of the staffs, such as 3/4 or 4/4. Next, we move on to the notations and clef.
The note E is written on the bottom line. Consequentially, the notes F-A-C-E are the ones that do not overlap the lines, but are written between the lines. Now these notes, are modified according to time signatures such as a hollow dot, which means a note played for 2 measures.
He said, "imagine the notes and rests to be dots on a scalar graph". Well it does help a lot in the initial stages till one masters the technique. This will take some time, hence you need to be very patient and dedicated.
Practice, dedication, and patience are the keys here. You need to feel the notes as you read them. Play as you read and feel what you play. While your brain registers the notes, let your heart feel their melody.